Creating a Pipe Section
This article summarises creation of a pipe section for Example 3. It is divided into the following sections:
‘Material Component’ describes the specification of the material for the pipe section.
‘Pipe Section Component’ describes the specification of the pipe section.
The pipe section is made of non-linear steel, so you must create a Material component to represent it. Creating a new component is very easy. To indicate where you want the component to be created, simply select (click on) the appropriate folder in the Project Sidebar. In this case, select the Material folder.
Once the required folder has been selected, simply select Material from the Insert menu. Alternatively, you can right-click over the folder and select Material from the New menu. Whichever method is used, a new Material component called Material 1 appears in the Material folder.
You should rename this component. Either select it in the Project Sidebar and choose Rename from the Edit menu or right-click on it and choose Rename from the context menu which opens. Type the name of the new component, “X65 Steel”, and press Return to finish editing and confirm the entry.
You will notice that there is a Material Type drop-down list, which provides two options; Linear and Non-Linear. For this component, the Non-Linear option is selected. Naturally the Non-Linear Data button pertains specifically to non-linear materials and becomes enabled in this instance.
Set the properties as outlined in Example 3 by pressing the Properties button and entering the data in the figure below.
Specifying Non-Linear Material Properties
Often, certain parameters are optional and do not have to be entered. If in doubt whether or not a parameter is optional, place the mouse pointer over its name. A tool tip window will appear showing basic information about the parameter, including whether it is an optional entry.
Press OK to confirm the data, the dialog closes, and the Component View is updated as shown in the figure below. Note that the Stress-Strain Curve data displayed in the figure also needs to be input by using the Non-Linear Data button, again refer to Example 3.
Nonlinear Material Component
You can now proceed to creating a Pipe Section component. Create a pipe section in the Line folder by right-clicking on the folder and selecting New > Line > Pipe Section from the Context Menu. Rename this pipe section "16'' Pipe".
Primary inputs on the Pipe Section component are divided across two tabs, Properties and Attachments. Properties of the base section and any coatings are specified on the Properties tab, while the Attachments tab facilitates specification of attachments such as buoyancy material or strakes. As there are no attachments associated with the pipe section, you may ignore the Attachments tab and focus on the Properties tab.
You will notice that there is a Specification drop-down list, which provides two options; Standard and Direct. The Standard format references a Material component, whereas the Direct format allow you to specify structural properties (e.g. bending stiffness) directly, without any reference to a material. For this example, you’ll use the Standard format, so the default selection remains unchanged. Naturally the Direct Properties button is only relevant for the Direct format and is disabled in this instance.
When you click on the Main Properties button, the Main Properties dialog is displayed as shown in the figure below.
Pipe Section Properties
Most of the parameters here are standard numerical values. Clicking in the Material input presents you with a drop-down list where the choices are either <none> or any of the Material components currently defined in the project. At this stage you have only one option, X65 Steel, which you select.
Both Weight in Air / Unit Length and Weight in Water / Unit Length contain the value CALCULATED by default. This means that the program computes both values internally using the outer diameter, thickness, and material properties that you have specified. If you want to override this computation, you can input both values directly. If you do specify a Weight in Air / Unit Length, any value you might have input for material Mass Density is ignored – the mass density is calculated from the weight in air and the cross-section area. For this example, you will use the default values as calculated internally.
Set the values for the pipe section as outlined in Example 3 and as shown in the figure below.
Specifying Pipe Section Properties
Click on OK to confirm the data. The dialog closes and the Component View is updated as shown in the figure below. Note that there are no coatings associated with the pipe section in this example and you may ignore the Internal Coatings and External Coatings buttons.
Pipe Section Component View